Crucifixion

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Armenian illuminated manuscripts

A collection of the best known and most characteristic illuminated manuscripts of the Armenian Church

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Armenian illuminated manuscripts form one of the most beautiful traditions of the Medieval Armenian art. The earliest surviving examples date from the 5th century, following the invention of the Armenian alphabet by Masrop Mashtots Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց (362-440). Very few fragments dated from the 5th-7th centuries have been survived. The oldest preserved in its entirety dates from the 9th century. 13th-14th centuries form the golden age of the Armenian calligraphy. Among the greatest Armenian miniaturists is Toros Roslin Թորոս Ռոսլին (1210-1270), who lived and worked in the Armenian kingdom of CIlicia.
Armenian Illuminated manuscripts are remarkable for their festive designs based on the Armenian  religious life and culture. lluminated manuscripts mostly recount the Holy Bible, in particular the Holy Gospels, as well as many aspects of the religious life and teachings of the Armenian Church. Most of the manuscripts were written and illustrated by monks. Armenian monasteries have been for centuries the centres of religious art and literature. Most of those manuscripts are exquisitely elaborated, covered in gilt and brilliant colors. It was a common belief that the beauty of the illustration could refresh the human mind and spirit.
Of the 31,000 Armenian manuscripts currently listed around the world, about 10,000 of them are ornamented, with 5,000 – 7,000 of them containing miniatures. Most of these manuscripts are preserved in the Matenadaran Institute of Yerevan (more than ten thousand manuscripts and fragments of manuscripts).

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»   The Passion of Christ


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Christ before the high Priest, the Denial of Peter, by Toros Roslin, 1262, W.539 Walters collection

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Mocking of the Christ, by Toros Roslin, 1262, W.539 Walters collection

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The Passion of Christ, 16th century, ms542 Walters collection 

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»   The Crucifixion of the Lord


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The Crucifixion of our Lord, Gospel of early 10th century, ms697 Mekhitarists Library Vienna

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The Crucifixion, by Evargis the priest, 1038, Gospel of Taron, ms6201 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of the Lord, 1050, Melitene, Sebastia, ms974 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of the Lord, by Toros Roslin, 1262, W.539 Walters collection

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The Descent from the Cross and Entombment, by Toros Roslin, 1262, W.539 Walters collection

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The Descent from the Cross and Entombment, 1265, Gospel of Keran, ms1965 Jerusalem Armenian Patriarchate

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The Crucifixion of the Lord, by Toros Roslin, Malatia Gospels, 1268, Hromkla monastery, ms10675 Matenadaran collection

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The Descent from the Cross, by Toros Roslin, Malatia Gospels, 1268, Hromkla monastery, ms10675 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Hovhannes monk, 1287, Akner monastery, ms197 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord,  by Grigor Tatevatsi, 1297, monastery of Tatev, ms7482 Matenadaran collection

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The Descent from the Cross, 1302, by Momik, Noravank, ms6792 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Thomas Markare, 1315, Khordeants monastery, Nakhichevan, ms2930 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Toros Taronatsi, 1323, Gladzor monastery, ms6289 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Sargis Pidzak, 1336, Sis, Cilicia, ms5786 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by monk Avag, 1337, Agarak monastery, ms212 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Smbat sparapet, 1376, Crimea, ms7644 Matenadaran collection

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Stepanos and Hovaness, 1401, Theodosia, Crimea, ms3863 Matenadaran collection

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The Crusifix, by Hovhannes Vardapet, 1455, Hizan monastery, W.543 Walters collection

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The nailing on the Cross, by Mesrop Khzanetsi, 1609, The Bodleian Library

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The Crucifixion of our Lord, by Mesrop Khzanetsi, 1609, The Bodleian Library

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The Descent from the Cross,  by Mesrop Khzanetsi, 1609, The Bodleian Library

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»   The Exaltation of the Holy Cross


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The Exaltation of the Holy Cross, The sign of the Son of Man appearing in Heaven, by Toros Roslin, 1262, W.539 Walters collection

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The Exaltation of the Holy Cross, 1497, W.545 Walters collection

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The Exaltation of the Holy Cross, by Mesrop Khzanetsi, 1609, The Bodleian Library

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